Review treaties negotiated between the Crown and Indigenous Nations in Western Canada and discuss how these treaties relate to Canada's Confederation, The Riel Resistance of 1869 and 1885, and settlement in the West. Treaties 1 – 8, which spanned from 1871 to 1899 in Western Canada, define the relationship between Indigenous peoples and newcomers, but treaty history is either misunderstood or ignored. Many believe that treaties were merely agreements over land and other discussions were lost in misunderstandings between the different cultures of Euro-Canadians and Indigenous peoples. Historians are beginning to understand that treaties were not mere land surrenders, but also discussed governance, economics, the environment, language, spirituality and other components of the treaty relationship. Understanding this relationship is essential to relations between Indigenous and non Indigenous peoples today, but it also adds essential context to the settlement of Western Canada.
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